Pan Biling, member of the Standing Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, member of the Central Committee of the Democratic Progressive Committee, chairman of the Hunan Provincial Committee of the Democratic Progressive Committee, and deputy director of Hunan Provincial Department of Ecology and Environment.
Over the past 70 years, with the deepening of the concept of environmental protection, the country has continuously strengthened natural ecosystems and environmental protection, carried out comprehensive management of soil erosion, strengthened desertification control, expanded the area of forests, lakes, and wetlands, strengthened the protection of nature reserves, and implemented Major ecological restoration projects, new achievements have been made in ecological protection and construction, and ecological conditions have been continuously improved.
I was admitted to Peking University in 1981. At that time, Beijing was full of yellow sand as soon as it was spring. Lesbians must wear gauze when they go out. I clearly remember that when I was at Peking University, I had to take the No. 332 bus from the zoo to the Summer Palace, and the bare sand along the sides of the road was full of bare sand. Looking back now, Beijing is full of lush, barely large areas of bare land.
When I was in college, the teacher often told us in the classroom that the ecological situation in China is very serious. The most prominent are the "sand advances and retreats" in the northwest and the soil erosion in the Loess Plateau. Through decades of hard work, the phenomenon of "advancing into the sand and retreating from the sand" has not only been contained, but also has appeared in many places, and the ecological environment of the Loess Plateau has also undergone great changes. In the early years, I went to northern Shaanxi for business. Both sides of the road from Xi'an to Yan'an were basically bare, but now I go again, and the mountains on both sides have been greatly greened. It can be seen that the achievements in ecological construction are huge.
From nothing to weak, from weak to strong, from partial to overall, from the past "three wastes" governance to the construction of ecological civilization, in the 70 years since the founding of New China, China's environmental protection cause has gradually integrated into the main battlefield of the country's political, economic and social life. The stage has made remarkable achievements.
In 1972, our country's first government delegation after the restoration of the legal seat of the United Nations participated in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, Sweden. Prior to this, despite environmental pollution in many parts of China, under the influence of the extreme leftist thought at the time, many people believed that "environmental pollution is a product of a capitalist society, and there is no pollution in a socialist country." The Prime Minister's decision-making delegation participated. It can be said that it was only after participating in this meeting that environmental protection was put on the agenda in our country.
In August 1973, the State Council convened the first National Conference on Environmental Protection, which considered and approved the "Several Provisions on the Protection and Improvement of the Environment (Trial Draft)", and formally incorporated environmental protection into the scope of functions of governments at all levels. At this point, China's environmental protection cause has officially started.
In October 1974, the State Council established the Environmental Protection Leading Group and set up an office, which can be said to be the predecessor of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment today.
In 1982, the Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection was established, and the Ministry of Environmental Protection was set up in the Ministry; in 1984, the Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection was changed to the State Environmental Protection Agency, but it was still a subordinate bureau. I graduated from Peking University in 1985 and was assigned to work in the Hunan Provincial Construction Committee. At that time, the Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau was a secondary institution under the Construction Committee. In 1988, the environmental protection work was separated from the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development, and the State Environmental Protection Administration was established at the deputy ministerial level directly under the State Council. In 1998, the State Environmental Protection Administration was upgraded to the State Environmental Protection Administration at the ministerial level. In 2008, the State Environmental Protection Administration was upgraded. It is the Ministry of Environmental Protection and a constituent department of the State Council. For more than 30 years, the status of environmental protection departments has become higher and higher. Especially since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core has paid more and more attention to environmental protection work, and has promoted the construction of ecological civilization to the strategic height of "Five in One." In March 2018, according to the 13th National The State Council ’s institutional reform plan approved by the National People ’s Congress at one meeting established the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, and then consolidated and strengthened its functions to achieve unified supervision of all pollutants.
At the same time, the construction of the rule of law in China's environmental protection is also continuously promoted.
On March 5, 1978, the First Session of the Fifth National People's Congress adopted the revised Article 11, paragraph 3 of the Constitution, which states: "The state protects the environment and natural resources, and prevents pollution and other public hazards." This is the first time environmental protection has been written into the Constitution. Future environmental protection legislation established the constitutional basis.
In 1979, the enactment of the Environmental Protection Law (trial) was the first in China to establish a legal system for ecological environmental protection. Immediately, special legislation on environmental protection began. In August 1982, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress reviewed and passed the Marine Environmental Protection Law, and then successively passed laws and regulations such as the Water Pollution Control Law, the Air Pollution Control Law and the Soil Pollution Control Law.
But for a long time, our environmental protection law was soft and its operability was not very strong. In 2009, I encountered a case in which a paper-making company by the Dongting Lake did not meet emissions standards, and the phenomenon of stealing was also serious. In order to strengthen the supervision of this company, we installed online monitoring equipment, but during a law enforcement inspection, We found that the enterprise was seriously falsified, and the water pipe of the online monitoring device was secretly sampled in a bucket of tap water. According to the environmental protection law at that time, the maximum penalty was only 200,000 yuan. We gave 5 times the penalty and issued the largest ticket in the history of environmental protection in Hunan, which was only 1 million yuan. For an enterprise, 1 million yuan has a certain deterrent. Effect, but for such serious violations, the intensity is still insufficient.
In 2014, the Environmental Protection Law was revisited, and measures such as continuous daily penalties, seals and seizures, and production stoppages were introduced, which meant that environmental violations could be punished without caps if they were not stopped, which forced illegal enterprises to move quickly. Correct pollution. Judging from work practices in recent years, after the introduction of the new environmental protection law, the total amount of environmental penalties has increased significantly, indicating that our law enforcement efforts are increasing, but the average amount of punishment for each environmental protection case in the country is still only about 50,000 yuan. The cost of environmental violations is still low. Therefore, I suggest that the next step is to accelerate the reform of the compensation system for ecological and environmental damage.
Since the 18th CPC National Congress, under the guidance of Xi Jinping's thoughts on ecological civilization, fundamental changes have taken place in the construction of ecological civilization in China, and unprecedented achievements have been made. A beautiful answer sheet has been submitted, but now it is the critical period to overcome difficulties. The people's demand for high-quality ecological products is also more and more urgent. This requires us to maintain the strategic determination of ecological civilization construction, further improve and enhance the governance system and capacity of ecological civilization construction, and better transform the advantages of ecological civilization system. For governance effectiveness.
According to international experience, a country and region must effectively curb the deterioration of the quality of the ecological environment. In that year, the investment in ecological and environmental protection must account for more than 1.5% of GDP. In order to significantly improve the quality of the ecological environment, the investment in ecological and environmental protection must account for more than 3% of GDP. . At present, although China has established a diversified ecological and environmental protection investment mechanism, it is still incomplete, inadequate and inadequate. In fact, the fight against pollution is much wider in population and area than the fight against poverty, and the task is much more difficult. I suggest that the total annual financial input to the battle against pollution prevention and control must not be lower than the battle against poverty and that the growth rate cannot be lower than the increase in fiscal revenue.
I firmly believe that as long as we truly grasp the profound connotation of Xi Jinping's thoughts on ecological civilization, and firmly establish and actively implement the concept of "green mountains and green mountains are golden mountains and silver mountains," the goal of beautiful China will be achieved at an early date.