Chen Xiaoguang, Vice Chairman of the CPPCC National Committee, made a keynote speech
For a long time, especially since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council have attached great importance to the construction of ecological compensation mechanisms, and established a sound ecological compensation mechanism as one of the main contents of ecological civilization construction. After years of development, great progress has been made in ecological compensation practices, and ecological compensation mechanisms have been gradually established. We must also see that in the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism and related work, China is still facing imbalanced work progress, single funding source channels, low ecological compensation efficiency, insufficient cooperation at different levels, and lack of special legislation. To this end, it is recommended:
First, fully understand the significance of establishing an ecological compensation mechanism. The Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee pointed out that the construction of ecological civilization is a millennium plan for the sustainable development of the Chinese nation. Establishing an ecological compensation mechanism is an important means of protecting the ecological environment, and it is also an important content of building an ecological civilization system. Enriching the ecological compensation system, expanding the scope of ecological compensation, improving the ecological compensation mechanism, and carrying out comprehensive ecological compensation are of great value and significance for accelerating the construction of ecological civilization and building a "beautiful China".
The second is to promote the formation of long-term mechanisms for ecological compensation. As an important part of the construction of ecological civilization, ecological compensation involves a wide range of areas, points, and levels. It is necessary to strengthen system construction and promote the introduction of the "Ecological Compensation Regulations" as soon as possible. Legally define the rights and obligations of all parties involved in ecological compensation. Integrity and synergy of policies.
The third is to give full play to the synergy of policies and departments. It is important to establish and improve coordination mechanisms between government departments. Only by forming a cooperative and coordinated working mechanism, can the responsibilities of each department be formed to form a complete ecological compensation work chain, guide the steady progress of ecological compensation work, and integrate ecological compensation areas. It is necessary to formulate relevant regional industrial, fiscal, and land policies, encourage the development of green industries in areas where nature reserves are located, and improve the effect of ecological compensation policies.
The fourth is that administrative management must take measures according to local conditions. China has a vast territory, with great differences from south to north and east to west. In the top-level design or rule-making process of the construction of ecological civilization, it is necessary to establish a hierarchical classification and partition management mechanism in accordance with national conditions and the actual conditions of the local ecological environment, improve the control system of land use, take into account the requirements of rigidity and flexibility, and handle different types of land and space. Requirements and control rules.
The fifth is to build a new framework for national ecological compensation. It is necessary to straighten out the relationship between the government and the market, and establish a vertical compensation mechanism mainly based on the government's purchase of public ecological products and services and paid use of natural resource assets. ; Horizontal compensation reflects market rules, and is more fair and orderly.
Yin Hong, member of the Standing Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, deputy director of the Human Resources and Environment Committee, and full-time vice chairman and secretary-general of the Jiu San Society: Improve the ecological protection compensation mechanism to help the construction of ecological civilization
In May of this year, Vice Chairman Li Bin led the Human Resources and Environmental Commission's investigation team to Anhui and Zhejiang provinces to conduct a democratic supervision survey on the specific implementation of the ecological compensation pilot project in the Xin'an River Basin. The research team believes that the horizontal ecological protection compensation mechanism in the Xin'an River Basin has effectively mobilized the enthusiasm of all parties, and the ecological construction has achieved remarkable results. At the same time, the research team also understands that ecological compensation has lagging legal system construction, the compensation index system is not sound and unscientific, the compensation standards are significantly lower, and the vertical support guidance is insufficient.
1. Promote compensation legislation for ecological protection and improve the supporting system. The core of the legislative work should adhere to the goal of ecological protection compensation, adhere to the legal obligation of ecological protection and the right to receive protection compensation. At the legislative level, the legal status, legal basis and connotation scope of ecological protection compensation should be clarified on the basis of the civil property rights system to provide legal protection for ecological protection compensation. At the institutional level, national and local ecological compensation systems are formulated separately, and ecological protection compensation implementation systems are divided into fields, etc., and an ecological protection compensation system is gradually formed.
2. Strengthen basic research on the compensation mechanism for ecological protection, and scientifically improve the compensation index system. The first is to establish a scientific compensation index system to lay the foundation for "determining compensation by quantity" and "combining quantity with quality". The second is scientific monitoring to provide fair and just evaluation results for compensation. The third is to implement the "high quality and excellent compensation" compensation method to promote the improvement of ecosystem service quality with limited funds. Fourth, based on the analysis of the current implementation of the ecological compensation mechanism, advance research into the legislation.
3. Increase investment in ecological protection compensation and increase the amount of compensation. The main subjects of compensation for ecological protection compensation are citizens and governments at all levels. First of all, governments at all levels should give priority to the implementation and gradually increase compensation for individual ecological protection. The protection of citizens' individual ecological protection compensation is protected by agreement. The second is to increase budget arrangements for transfer payments in key ecological function zones and further improve balanced transfer payment methods. Third, the compensation for horizontal ecological protection should take into account the actual compensation for the upstream management, development opportunity cost, and other estimated compensation costs. The fourth is to integrate government ecological compensation funds and further strengthen the supervision of the use of ecological compensation funds.
Fourth, give play to the role of central financial funds to guide and establish a long-term mechanism for ecological compensation in the upper and lower reaches of the river basin. Governments at all levels should bear the responsibility for compensation for ecological protection across administrative regions. Especially in the practice of horizontal protection compensation, higher levels of fiscal support for upstream and downstream river basins that establish horizontal compensation mechanisms should be strengthened, and local governments should be guided to establish horizontal ecological compensation mechanisms, reflecting the country Protection of all public goods for all people. Actively promote the construction of the National Ecological Compensation Mechanism Demonstration Zone in Xin'an River and Qiandao Lake, and accelerate the formation of a long-term mechanism for ecological compensation.
CPPCC Standing Committee Member, Deputy Secretary-General (Part-time), Zhang Daohong, Full-time Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the China Democratic League: Establish a market-oriented and diversified ecological compensation mechanism
In May this year, the NLD Central Committee conducted a special survey on marketization and diversified ecological compensation. The survey learned that the country has carried out many practices at the level of market transactions, and the emissions trading, water rights, and carbon emissions trading are relatively mature. But at the same time, we also learned that China still faces some difficult problems in promoting marketization and diversified ecological compensation: first, insufficient development of marketization; second, promoting marketization and diversified compensation has not yet formed a joint force; third, special legislation has not yet been issued Fourth, it is difficult to quantify the ecological value, which has affected the marketization and diversified compensation process. To this end, it is recommended that:
1. Streamline government and market relations. Adhering to the basic purpose of maintaining or increasing ecosystem services and their values, focusing on government regulation and supplemented by market-oriented operations, a market-based ecological compensation mechanism under the guidance of government regulations is gradually formed.
2. Apply mature experience to promote market-based ecological compensation. The horizontal compensation of the Xin'an River and Dongjiang River basins, Zhejiang Qingtian's “River Right to Home”, Sanjiangyuan District and Taihu River Basin ’s “Wetland Reserve Trading” have accumulated good experience and practices, which can be matured and promoted. Promote related work.
3. Establish an "ecological bank" system. Drawing on the practice model of the international "ecological bank", a diversified "ecological bank" system that complements each other with reserve transactions and policy banks, commercial banks, and investment funds will be established.
Fourth, accelerate the introduction of regulations on ecological compensation. In view of the problems existing in the specific application of the existing regulations, relevant management rules should be formulated to form the basic framework of laws and regulations on ecological compensation supported by the existing regulations. Promote the promulgation of the Regulations on Ecological Protection Compensation and enhance the enforceability and operability of the law.
Fifth, accelerate the establishment of a trading platform for ecological assets and ecological products, and improve the ecological resource property rights trading market. The first is to accelerate the reform of the property rights system of natural resource assets, and to promote the separation of natural resources asset ownership, operating rights, and contracting rights; the second is to establish an ecosystem service evaluation, pricing standard, and market-based bargaining platform to improve market-based ecological compensation. The ability of the mechanism to operate; the third is to encourage and guide the beneficiary areas, ecologically protected areas, and upstream and downstream of the river basin to diversify compensation methods such as capital subsidies, counterpart collaboration, industrial transfer, and joint construction of the park; and fourth, to actively use carbon trading and pollution reduction Rights and other means to improve the market-based ecological compensation mechanism.
Zhang Changer, member of the CPPCC National Committee and chairman of the Anhui CPPCC: improve coordination mechanism to promote new progress in work
The cooperation between Anhui and Zhejiang provinces, after 7 years of practice and exploration, formed the "Xin'an River Model" of ecological compensation, which has the significance of spreading across the country. However, some common problems affecting the development of ecological compensation work have also been discovered in the exploration and practice, which are mainly manifested in the unclear subject rights and responsibilities, the difficulty of coordination across administrative regions, the incomplete compensation standard system, and deepening of ideological understanding. To this end, it is recommended that:
1. Establish a clear organization and coordination system. Establish a coordination organization for ecological compensation mechanisms at the national level, coordinate and plan related policies for ecological compensation, clarify the responsibilities of relevant departments, integrate existing funds and resources for ecological compensation, improve the working system, and work together to promote the development of ecological compensation. Inter-provincial levels establish a joint organization guarantee system to form a strong work promotion mechanism.
2. Establish a normalized communication and coordination mechanism. For inter-provincial ecological compensation work, it is recommended that the relevant national ministries and commissions take the lead in setting up a normalized communication platform. Strengthen regional linkages, guide local governments to compile protection plans, jointly implement planning goals and key tasks, build environmental big data platforms, and explore the "one picture" command mode. Strengthen local support and guidance, coordinate and resolve inter-provincial interest relationships, and find the greatest common divisor for the interests of all parties.
Third, improve the ecological compensation standard system. At the national level, comprehensive consideration should be given to the value of ecosystem services, the state of the ecological environment, the level of economic development, and the ability to pay financially, as well as the opportunity cost of development in ecologically protected areas, the cost of pollution control, and the benefits of ecological environment improvement. 2. The “two verticals and one horizontal” ecological protection compensation system for the paid use of natural resource assets and the trading of natural resource assets, that is, the state or local government implements top-down compensation for key areas of ecological protection, and the users of natural resources make Bottom-up compensation will be used for the use of natural resource assets, and beneficiaries will compensate the protectors. Guide social investors to compensate eco-protectors, further expand channels for raising compensation funds, and improve the efficiency of fund use.
Fourth, strengthen the publicity of ecological compensation. Promote party committees and governments at all levels to firmly establish the values of ecological resources, improve the consciousness of all sectors of society to participate in ecological compensation, summarize and promote a number of good experiences and good practices, consolidate the consensus of the whole society, and promote ecological compensation through point-and-point demonstrations.
Huang Runqiu, member of the Standing Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Jiu San Society, and Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment: Promote the establishment of a comprehensive provincial ecological compensation mechanism
At present, seven provinces across the country have explored and implemented comprehensive ecological compensation mainly based on financial awards. This mechanism has played a significant role in improving the regional environmental ecological quality within the province. However, the survey found that there are problems: First, the mechanism needs to be improved. The second is that funds are not pooled. Third, marketization and social participation are not high, and funding sources are insufficient. Fourth, the efficiency and accuracy of fund use are insufficient. To this end:
The first is to promote the establishment and improvement of comprehensive provincial ecological compensation mechanisms. Establish a mechanism for deliberations and coordination responsible by provincial leaders, study and resolve major issues, and coordinate departmental supervision and supervision. Design the reward and compensation mechanism based on the principle of rewarding good and punishing bad.
The second is to increase the overall planning and integration of funds, enrich the source of funds, and increase the total amount of funds. We will coordinate and integrate funds for ecological protection such as forests, grasslands, and wetlands, and special funds for pollution prevention for different factors such as water, gas, and soil. On the basis of ensuring the stability and gradual increase of government financial investment, we will play a more active role in the market and society. At present, 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) across the country have launched pilot programs for the paid use and trading of emission rights. In the future, we will further improve our monitoring, supervision, and protection capabilities.
The third is to establish a clear compensation standard system to improve the efficiency of fund use. In addition to considering the protection and management investment in the compensation standard system, the long-term consolidation cost of the ecological environment quality should also be considered. The relevant indicators should be simple, and the quantitative indicators should be the main ones, which can be statistical, monitorable and assessable. The western provinces can highlight indicators such as the area of the ecological protection red line and ecosystem service functions. Specific indicators and their bins can further highlight the points and adopt continuous grading methods to improve the accuracy of compensation.
The fourth is to promote a synergy between the compensation system for ecological environmental damage and comprehensive ecological compensation. The ecological environment damage compensation system is a system for investigating the economic compensation liability of those responsible for damage to the ecological environment. It is necessary to step up efforts and explore the use of compensation funds for ecological environmental damage for comprehensive ecological compensation. The compensation funds for ecological environment damage that cannot be repaired and turned over to the state treasury for budget management can be used to compensate for ecosystem protection and restoration in ecologically fragile areas, or To compensate the relevant places to deal with environmental issues left over by history.
Pan Xiaoyan, Member of the CPPCC National Committee and Director of Xinjiang Chenghecheng Law Firm: Legislative Suggestions on Ecological Compensation Regulations
Judging from the number of environmental emergencies in the past ten years, the huge number of reality has not completely changed. Although there are many policies and measures, the failure to solve the problem of compensation for ecological restoration from the mechanism, even if the relationship between protection and development in some places is coordinated, there are still many unstable factors that affect sustainable development.
I. Problems in the Ecological Compensation System
Firstly, the laws and regulations are not perfect; secondly, the ecological compensation system is not unified and complete; thirdly, the existing system and regulations have imposed too little punishment on the destruction of the ecological environment; fourthly, the funding channels for ecological construction are single and the required funds are seriously insufficient.
Specific proposals for legislation on ecological compensation regulations
First, it is clear that ecological compensation should follow the principles of government-led, social participation, fairness and reasonableness, consistent power and responsibility, balanced consideration and balanced development. Give play to the government's leading role in ecological environment protection, strengthen system construction, improve regulations and policies, innovate institutional mechanisms, expand compensation channels, increase government purchase of services, and guide the active participation of various types of society and the public.
The second is to clarify the ecological compensation responsibilities and the obligations of each ecological subject from the law, and provide a legal basis for the standardized operation of the ecological restoration compensation mechanism. Improve laws and regulations on environmental pollution control, and increase compensation for ecological restoration. Further clearly distinguish the regulatory bodies of forests, grasslands, wetlands, deserts, oceans, water flows, and cultivated land.
The third is to clarify the source and standard of compensation for ecological compensation, make the information of ecological compensation public, improve the supervision and management of ecological compensation, the mechanism of ecological compensation assessment and corresponding legal responsibilities.
The fourth is to raise compensation funds through multiple channels, establish ecological compensation funds, and write them into regulations. Legislative guarantees are imposed on the collection of sewage charges, ecological compensation fees, and environmental taxes, and the proportion of the above-mentioned taxes and fees collected in the legislation is clearly stipulated in the ecological compensation fund account, which is used as a fund asset and dedicated.
Fifth, encourage diversified compensation systems and compensation activities. Clarify the scope of ecological compensation areas. Clarify the criteria for delimiting ecological compensation areas, compensation standards, and the scope of the subject of compensation. Clarify the process of supervision, approval, publicity, release and use of ecological compensation funds. Clear penalties for violations.
Six is to establish a compulsory environmental restoration compensation system. Strengthen the policy of paid use of resources and polluter pays. Comprehensive use of economic means such as price, finance and taxation, finance, industry and trade to form a scientific and reasonable resource and environment compensation mechanism and investment mechanism.
Lei Houxing, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and director of Lishui Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital in Zhejiang Province: Practice and suggestions on the mechanism for realizing the value of ecological products
Lishui, Zhejiang is an important place of germination and practice of the "two mountains" concept. Under the full support and guidance of the relevant national ministries and commissions and Zhejiang Province, Lishui was officially listed by the Yangtze River Office in January this year as the first pilot city for the realization of the value of ecological products in the country. Since the pilot, we have explored the development of an ecological product accounting and evaluation system, advancing the work of horizontal ecological compensation and ecological environmental damage compensation in the upper and lower reaches of the river basin, establishing an ecological compensation system for the protection of drinking water sources, and pioneering an ecological credit system, which has achieved positive results. But in the process, we also encountered some difficult issues. To this end, the following three suggestions are made:
The first is to establish scientific ecological product value accounting standards. The calculation of the value of ecological products is the "pricing" and "valuation" method of converting green water, green mountains and golden mountains to silver mountains. Although there has been some exploration in this area, the current accounting standards are inconsistent, the methods are not uniform, and the comparability is poor. To this end, clarifying the competent department of ecological product value accounting and establishing a unified accounting method across the country can effectively guide high-quality and green development in ecological areas.
The second is to establish a compensation and compensation mechanism based on ecological capacity. Landscapes, forests, fields, lakes and grasses are a community of life and the sum of ecological capacity. The ecological capacity can be used to verify the supply of ecological products, such as water conservation, carbon sequestration, and pollution purification, so as to determine the quantity, quality, and spatial layout of the supply of ecological products. With reference to the balance of cultivated land occupation and compensation, in accordance with the principles of "who consumes, who compensates" and "who protects, who benefits", a diversified and market-based compensation system based on ecological capacity is established throughout the country based on ecological capacity. The balance mechanism is of exemplary significance and leading effect for promoting the green and low-carbon transformation and building a community of human destiny.
The third is to establish an ecological product market trading mechanism. Based on ecological product value accounting to verify ecological capacity, based on this, it is recommended to establish a national ecological product trading market in ecological areas, implement an ecological product provider empowerment and consumer payment system, and allow ecological products and energy use rights and carbon emission rights Exchange of quotas on development rights such as pollution rights, water use rights, etc. Developed areas are encouraged to purchase development right quotas from ecological areas first.
Member of the Standing Committee of the CPPCC National Committee and Vice Chairman of the Sichuan Provincial Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference: Zhao Zhenmill: Improve the payment compensation mechanism for key ecological function zones
From the perspective of grass-roots research, the problems in the compensation mechanism for transfer payments in key ecological function areas are as follows: First, the division of power and financial rights in ecological environmental protection is not equal. Second, the structure of compensation for ecological transfer payments is unreasonable. Third, the management and use of ecological transfer payment projects are not scientific. Suggestions for this:
The first is to improve the compensation system for ecological transfer payments. Reasonably define the environmental protection powers of governments at all levels, strengthen the compensation for ecological transfer payments in key ecological function zones, and enhance the overall and integrated effects of management of ecological resources and environmental powers. Promulgation of "Ecological Compensation Regulations" in due course. Explore the establishment of a dynamic adjustment mechanism for compensation for ecological transfer payments. Improve the incentive and evaluation mechanism, incorporate ecological and environmental indicators into the performance evaluation system of local governments, and strengthen the supervision and management of transfer payment project funds.
The second is to increase the compensation for general transfer payments. Revise measures for balancing transfer payments based on local standard fiscal revenue and expenditure gaps in a timely manner. Based on the national average level of economic development, fiscal revenue and expenditure and other indicators, fully consider the local regional environment, economic development, population size, protected area and ecology. Protect the value and other factors, increase the intensity of general transfer payments, and protect the economic development and environmental protection expenditures in key ecological function zones. The establishment of incentive ecological compensation generally transfers payment funds, taking regional water quality improvement, forest coverage increase, pollutant reduction, and soil erosion control area as reward indicators, taking into account ecological incentives on the basis of financial balance.
The third is to improve the relevant special transfer payment compensation policy. Adjust the special compensation payment projects for ecological compensation in a timely manner, increase the coordination of cross-provincial and wide-reaching projects, and timely clean up duplicate investment and similar projects. Reduce or eliminate the requirements for supporting funds from local governments in key ecological function zones, give local governments the discretion to use special transfer payments reasonably, improve the efficiency of fund use, and increase the overall planning and flexibility of project implementation.
Lu CP, member of the Standing Committee of the CPPCC and former chairman and party secretary of China Three Gorges Group Co., Ltd .: Three suggestions on the deep participation of enterprises in the ecological compensation mechanism
1. Establish a market-oriented operation model of central coordination, government-led, enterprise implementation, social participation, and long-term sustainable ecological compensation.
The ecological environment has regional integrity, continuity in time and space, publicity of resources, and economic value. According to the principle of who benefits, who pays, who protects, and who is compensated, not only must the protection cost be compensated, but also the industrial development abandoned for protection. Opportunity costs, but due to the lack of scientific pricing, quantitative evaluation, and fair arbitration mechanisms, it is difficult to quantify protection costs and opportunity costs. As a result, the current ecological compensation model of the river basin is incomplete compensation. The status of the compensator and the payee is not equal and can only be negotiated by both parties. Game, negotiate once a year.
It is recommended that the central government give upstream and downstream local governments more policy autonomy and resource allocation rights in terms of resource allocation, project approval, industry replacement, and charging mechanism, encourage innovation of ecological financial products, establish a green financial system, and build ecological undertakings into ecological industries. To attract the broad and active participation of all parties in the society.
2. Establish a diversified compensation market mechanism with enterprises as the mainstay, market as the hub, and specialization as the platform.
The compensation for ecological environment of the river basin can not only rely on the financial allocation of the central and local governments. It is recommended that the government concentrate the allocation of high-quality resources to the leading enterprises in the industry, provide support in comprehensive subsidies, tax reductions, credit finance, etc., and give play to the role of leading companies as a benchmark to achieve the river basin. Specialized implementation of ecological protection, industrialized development, and market-oriented operation, to create a comprehensive platform for industrial investment, resource integration, responsibility sharing, profit distribution, and dividend sharing.
3. Introduce the auction system of "franchise rights" and broaden the value conversion channel from "green water and green mountains" to "gold mountains and silver mountains".
Through the "one city, one strategy and one main body" model, a variety of ecological resources such as "no profit", "micro profit", "appropriate profit" and "appreciable profit" held by local governments are packaged for auction, and the business behavior of the company is restricted through the design of auction terms , Set target high and bottom lines, through incentives, warnings, penalties, and recovery of operating rights, and other institutional measures to regulate the behavior of participating entities, stabilize investor expectations, improve resource plasticity, and force enterprises to allocate resources, create benefits, save costs, and apply New technologies, innovative operating models, and the introduction of talents have continued to increase investment to strengthen and expand the ecological and environmental protection industry to achieve long-term sustainable development.
Zhang Liwen, member of the CPPCC National Committee and deputy leader of the Xing'an League of Inner Mongolia: Problems in the construction of the natural reserve system
In order to promote the construction of nature reserves with national parks as the main body, I raise two questions:
I. China has not yet issued an ecological compensation policy for nature reserves. The "Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Nature Reserves" is the only regulation in China that regulates nature reserves. There is no provision for ecological compensation. The implementation of ecological compensation policies in nature reserves in all regions mainly depends on sectoral policies such as public welfare forest compensation and grassland ecological compensation awards, and compensation standards are generally low. The national ecological compensation policy of returning farmland to forest and grassland is difficult to land in the nature reserve due to the special provisions of the scope of application. When the central government makes transfers to key ecological function zones, it can rarely invest in protected areas. As an important ecological function unit, nature reserves have not enjoyed preferential and preferential differentiated compensation policies. Does the National Development and Reform Commission, while advancing the establishment of a national park-based nature reserve system, consider considering the introduction of a comprehensive ecological compensation policy for nature reserves as an important policy guarantee? When formulating the "Ecological Compensation Regulations", will it stipulate that different types of nature reserves should be distinguished from general ecological functional areas and differentiated compensation standards should be implemented?
2. The proportion of the existing ecological compensation policies implemented in nature reserves is seriously insufficient, accounting for only about 1%. Due to insufficient investment, the ecological and environmental problems of nature reserves have long been difficult to solve. May I ask whether the Ministry of Finance will consider optimizing the proportion of expenditures in various fields of ecological compensation, while greatly increasing the proportion of expenditures in nature reserves, or setting up a special ecological compensation for nature reserves, and establishing a long-term investment mechanism and a long-term evaluation mechanism?
Du Dezhi, member of the CPPCC National Committee and deputy chairman of the CPPCC of Qinghai Province, established a multi-channel and diversified Sanjiangyuan ecological protection fund investment system
The implementation of the Sanjiangyuan Ecological Protection Project and the advancement of the pilot project of the national park construction system have initially curbed the deterioration of the ecological environment in the Sanjiangyuan area, and some areas have turned for the better, but there are still several issues that cannot be ignored:
The first is that the growth of artificially controlled grassland is extremely slow and there is a tendency of rapid secondary degradation. Judging from the practice of degraded grassland management in recent years, the management of degraded grassland is the most difficult task in the ecological protection and construction of Sanjiangyuan. The main reasons are: first, the high altitude and low temperature of the Three Rivers source area, and there is no absolute frost-free period, which leads to extremely slow vegetation recovery; second, due to the investment limit, in order to reduce costs, the project construction unit often does not sow seeds in accordance with the optimal mixing rate Instead, increase the proportion of lower-priced grass species that have deteriorated in three to five years. In view of the importance of grassland ecosystems in the Sanjiangyuan region and the arduousness of governance, can it increase the central government's transfer payments to the Sanjiangyuan region by increasing the compensation coefficients for the importance of the Sanjiangyuan region in the key national ecological function areas and spillovers? And most of the increased funds will be used for grassland ecological management.
The second is the lack of disposal methods and compensation standards for the withdrawal of mining rights. There are a total of 28 mining rights in the Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve involving withdrawal compensation, including 24 exploration rights and 4 mining rights. At present, the state has not introduced specific compensation scope and standards for the withdrawal of mineral rights in nature reserves. Due to the limited financial resources of Qinghai, the provincial government only compensates on the basis of “direct investment costs for exploration and development of mining rights”. It is suggested that the Ministry of Natural Resources study and issue specific guidance for the withdrawal of mining rights in nature reserves as soon as possible, and give preferential support to the withdrawal of mining rights in Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve.
Standing Committee of the CPPCC National Committee, Vice Chairman of the Heilongjiang CPPCC Zhao Yusen: On Ecological Compensation in Northeast State-owned Key Forest Regions
At present, the state-owned key forest areas in Northeast China have not been included in the scope of ecological compensation and do not enjoy the policy of ecological compensation. However, due to the implementation of natural forest resource protection projects in Northeast state-owned forest areas, there is a subsidy fund for natural forest management and protection. Forest ecological compensation is a long-term and complex systematic project. Natural forest resource protection projects and natural forest management and subsidy funds should be incorporated into the long-term mechanism of forest ecological compensation, which is more scientific and reasonable. In addition, the subsidies for natural forest protection and management funds are relatively low, and the standards should be adjusted and raised.
Selected members to speak
Liu Dongsheng, member of the Standing Committee of the CPPCC and deputy director of the State Forestry and Grassland Bureau:
For ecological resources, we must implement the principles of ecological priority and protection priority, and effectively protect the legitimate rights and interests of property rights holders through financial compensation, market-based compensation, etc .; at the same time, leave room for development for operators under the premise of protection. Industries such as farming, economic forests, and under-forest plantations have gained self-development capabilities, obtained corresponding benefits, and made up for the lack of external compensation.
The government can obtain the ecological income right, resource ownership or use right of ecological resources from property owners through installment (annual) compensation, redemption, leasing, etc., to achieve the government's goals of ecology and operators' benefits.
For natural resources such as national public welfare forests, national nature reserves and key ecological function zones and restricted development zones identified by the state, central financial compensation should be the main supplement, and local and market compensation should be supplemented; various types of ecological protection determined by the local District, local governments should bear the main compensation obligations.
Song Xuantao, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, member of the Party Group of the All-China Supply and Marketing Cooperative Association and director of the Supervisory Board:
I think in practice, we need to pay attention to the following three issues: First, the compensation standards are more scientific and standardized, and "one size fits all" is avoided. In recent years, ecological compensation work has been carried out to varying degrees in various parts of the country, but the compensation standards are different, and there is a lack of a unified and authoritative indicator system and measurement methods, resulting in a lack of scientific basis for the current ecological compensation mechanism. It is recommended to consider more between regions. Difference and avoid "one size fits all". The second is to innovate forms of compensation and improve the efficiency of fund use. At present, the central government invests a large amount of ecological compensation funds each year, but there are problems such as narrow channels, single compensation forms, and low use efficiency. It is recommended to establish a market-oriented and diversified ecological compensation mechanism to improve the efficiency of fund use. Third, the compensation system should take into account the immediate and long-term, and change "blood transfusion" into "hematopoiesis". At present, the comprehensive benefits of ecological compensation in some places are not high, and dynamic monitoring of inputs and effects is lacking. The long-term mechanism of ecological compensation is still not perfect. It is recommended to change the development mode and enhance the endogenous driving force of development, such as developing ecologically advantageous industries. Transform "blood transfusion" compensation into "hematopoiesis" compensation, guarantee the supply capacity of superior ecological products, and realize long-term development of the region.
Zhou Yumei, member of the CPPCC National Committee and deputy director of the Institute of Microelectronics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences:
The ecological compensation mechanism has achieved initial results. Legislative consciousness and ecological compensation consciousness are constantly improving. Different subjects have not reached a unified understanding of ecological compensation. It is recommended to increase publicity so that the awareness of ecological compensation can be continuously improved; publicity of typical cases can be adopted, which can bring economic benefits to the region on the one hand, and let the society understand the ecological compensation mechanism on the other; In conclusion, it is necessary to construct ecological compensation standards for key areas and key issues as soon as possible, and through continuous improvement, eventually establish a national ecological compensation standard; the technical support issues in the implementation of ecological compensation can open demand to the society, and purchase government services. Way to guide multi-party forces to provide solutions.
Member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and Deputy Director of Newborn Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics Mi Rong:
This bi-weekly symposium focused on the problems and suggestions in establishing an ecological compensation mechanism. Based on in-depth research, members of the CPPCC, experts and scholars negotiated with the relevant government departments. Through in-depth research and negotiation, the consensus of all parties was enhanced.
The establishment and improvement of ecological compensation mechanism is an important measure and effective way to achieve the construction of ecological civilization. At present, China has effectively explored important areas and key areas, but there are still problems that need to be solved, such as the rule of law construction and compensation standards in the ecological compensation mechanism. Determination and implementation. China has a vast territory, and many resources are protected across regions and provinces. Therefore, the protection of ecological resources requires top-level design and legal constraints; local governments should unify powers and responsibilities and provide appropriate compensation to protectors; at the same time, formulate scientific standards and monitoring indicators, Establish a long-term mechanism to continuously track the ecological status of the region or river basin to provide a data basis for compensation.
The construction of ecological civilization will leave precious wealth for the future, let nature return to nature, and not sacrifice the environment as the price of development. Establish an ecological compensation mechanism to promote the healthy development of ecological resource protection and make mountains greener and greener.
Fan Shukui, member of the CPPCC National Committee and chairman of China United Assets Appraisal Group Co., Ltd .:
The key to establishing an ecological compensation mechanism lies in practice. The policy coordination of ecological compensation, professional implementation, industrial application, market promotion, and social publicity are all concentrated in the pilot projects. Attempts, games, innovation, and promotion of compensation mechanisms are all focused on pilot cases. The successful examples of the pilot project of ecological compensation in the Xin'an River Basin promoted by several national ministries and commissions have brought us breakthroughs and surprises in practice. In the practice of serving the country's five-in-one, China's asset evaluation industry uses the measurement and evaluation of ecological value as an empirical research and application topic, and has formed fresh practical cases to provide basis and reference for ecological compensation.
Huang Baorong, member of the CPPCC National Committee and deputy mayor of Baiyin City, Gansu Province:
The first is to suggest that the state provide a legal basis for the ecological compensation mechanism from the legislative level, issue a sound regulatory document for the ecological protection compensation mechanism, clarify the general thinking and basic principles, clarify the rights and obligations between the subjects and objects of the ecological protection compensation, and standardize the ecological compensation standards. Compensation methods, clear channels for raising funds, and continuously promote the institutionalization and legalization of ecological protection compensation work.
The second is to suggest that the state, on the premise of strict protection of the ecological environment, issue relevant support and encouragement policies to guide counties and districts to rely on new agricultural business entities to accelerate the development of specialty breeding, agricultural product processing industries, and features of natural scenery and ethnic customs. Cultural industry and tourism industry to achieve ecological industrialization and industrial ecologicalization. Support leading enterprises to play a leading and demonstration role, build standardized and large-scale raw material production bases, and drive farmers and farmers' cooperatives to develop moderate-scale operations.
Thirdly, it is recommended that the central government increase the transfer payment of key national ecological function zones and broaden the scope of ecological compensation. According to regional differences, sort out, refine and decompose different ecological function sectors and important ecological factors, and follow reasonable principles and standards. Calculate and determine the mechanism of ecological compensation, and refine the subject, content, and standards of ecological compensation.
Liu Guihuan, Director of Eco-Environmental Compensation Research Center, Environmental Planning Institute, Ministry of Ecology and Environment:
Strengthening the evaluation of ecological compensation benefits and continuously improving the efficiency of ecological compensation is the key to determining whether the ecological compensation mechanism can operate continuously and efficiently. At present, the state has not yet established an ecological compensation benefit assessment mechanism. Although forest, wetland, watershed and other single-field ecological compensation policies have been carried out in the implementation process of project funding, organization and management, and ecological, social, and economic benefits, they are mostly qualitative descriptions or preliminary quantifications, lacking relative uniformity. Evaluation index system. The evaluation results of ecological compensation benefits are not directly linked to the evaluation of ecological civilization performance evaluation. The evaluation results are only "soft constraints" and not "hard constraints". Three suggestions are made on improving the evaluation of ecological compensation benefits.
The first is to accelerate the establishment of an ecological compensation benefit evaluation system. According to the objectives of the ecological compensation policy, clarify the direction of ecological compensation benefit assessment, and according to the functions and focus of relevant ministries and commissions, select and refine the benefit assessment indicators from ecological, economic, social and other aspects, standardize the basic data collection and quantification process, and form the ecological compensation benefit assessment. system.
The second is to consolidate the basic data of ecological compensation benefit assessment. Real and reliable basic data is the key to the evaluation of ecological compensation benefits and determines the effectiveness and credibility of ecological compensation benefits evaluation. It is recommended to accelerate the realization of data and information sharing in the evaluation of ecological compensation benefits by relevant ministries and commissions, to integrate relevant data on the implementation of policies related to ecological compensation, ecological environment monitoring and socio-economic statistics as soon as possible, to build a database of ecological compensation benefits evaluation, and to explore the establishment of ecological compensation Benefit evaluation technology platform provides data support for big data analysis of ecological compensation benefit evaluation.
The third is to strengthen the institutional guarantee for ecological compensation benefit assessment. Improve the inter-ministerial linkage mechanism for ecological compensation benefit evaluation, and realize seamless connection of data collection, platform construction, and evaluation supervision of ecological compensation benefits. Improve and clarify the responsibilities of various departments in the evaluation of ecological compensation benefits, improve the monitoring and supervision system of ecological compensation benefit evaluation indicators, and ensure that there are no missing items in all aspects of the evaluation. Accelerate the implementation of the pilot program for the evaluation of ecological compensation benefits, and continuously summarize the pilot experience to provide experience for the full implementation of ecological compensation benefits evaluation.
Briefings and responses from ministries
Luo Wen, Deputy Director of the National Development and Reform Commission:
At present, there are still many problems that need to be researched and solved urgently in the construction of ecological protection compensation mechanism, and laws can only be established after all parties have reached consensus. The legislation of ecological compensation is important and urgent, but it can't be urgent. At present, the work of ecological compensation has a certain working basis. In 2016, the General Office of the State Council issued the "Opinions on Improving the Ecological Protection Compensation Mechanism", and in 2018, our 9 committees, the Ministry of Finance, and other 9 departments issued the "Action Plan to Establish a Market-oriented and Diversified Ecological Compensation Mechanism." In November this year, our commission issued the "Eco-Compensation Pilot Program." In advancing the above work, try to see the issues as clearly as possible to lay a solid foundation for completing the legislative work. We will carefully study and absorb the ecological compensation legislative suggestions made by Pan Xiaoyan. In the next step, the legislative work of the Ecological Compensation Regulation will be taken as the starting point to further improve and perfect the ecological protection compensation system.
In 2016, with the consent of the State Council, an inter-ministerial joint meeting system for ecological protection compensation work has been established. Through the joint meeting to conduct research and discussion on major issues, we will give full play to the role of the joint meeting and promote ecological compensation work.
The Three Gorges Group has conducted beneficial explorations in the participation of enterprises in ecological compensation, and established a mechanism to effectively participate in ecological protection work in the Yangtze River Basin. Our Committee and the Three Gorges Group jointly initiated the establishment of the Yangtze River Green Development Investment Fund to support the green development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. This is a very innovative exploration. Our committee and relevant departments will jointly summarize the practical experience of the Three Gorges Group and promote good experiences and practices.
Xu Hongcai, Deputy Minister of Finance:
I would like to respond briefly to the statements made by several members just now:
First, the green mountains and green mountains are the golden mountains and the silver mountains. Doing a good job of ecological environmental protection should be the responsibility of each place.
Second, ecological products have strong externalities. If they do well on their own, others will also benefit. Appropriate compensation is also reasonable. Of course, how to quantify the external benefits enjoyed by others does require research.
Third, how should the compensation level be determined. It should be based on compensating the public services provided by the government, and also consider the expenditures of local governments on ecological protection, especially at this stage. These ecological protection expenditures are under great pressure and should mainly cover this one.
Fourth, rights and responsibilities must be equal. From a financial perspective, although local compensation is in place, compacting local responsibilities is not enough.
Fifth, the issue of upstream and downstream compensation. Governance must cost money, but it is not a long-term solution for the central government to make headway. It is necessary to establish a horizontal compensation mechanism for upstream and downstream.
In addition, a preliminary ecological compensation system has now been formed. In general, the level of basic public services for ecological protection should not be lower than that of economically developed areas. Now we are following this direction, but we still have to work hard to solve specific problems one by one. Because the pressure on the environment in the early stage is greater, local governments have a little more work in this area. From the perspective of protection, protection is necessary. The more the better, the better. The source of funds for protection also needs to be raised by the public and the society. Too much compensation will increase the burden on production enterprises and individual residents in other regions, and in the end will also affect the development of the country.
Wang Guanghua, Deputy Minister of Natural Resources:
Regarding ecological value accounting, it is still a difficult problem in academic research and practice at home and abroad. First, the existing research has limitations, and the basic theory needs to be strengthened. Second, the accounting methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, lack of uniform standards, and the basic data required are complex and difficult to promote on a large scale. In the next step, the Ministry of Natural Resources will actively promote and work hard to grasp the physical data of ecosystem services on the basis of finding out the "family base" of resources; drawing on the United Nations environmental and economic accounting system and relevant academic achievements at home and abroad to summarize and tap practices Experience, focusing on the research of basic theory and related standards. At the same time, through the implementation of a trial of the principal-agent mechanism for ownership of all natural resource assets for the entire population, the various subjects of property rights responsibilities were identified, and the requirements for ecological protection were put in place.
Regarding the withdrawal of mining rights in nature reserves, we are drafting opinions on behalf of the State Council for the classification and disposal of mining rights in national parks and national nature reserves. Judging from the current situation, mining rights in nature reserves are mainly subject to local approval, and most of the proceeds from exploration rights and mining rights are retained by local finance. Next, we will resolutely implement the important instruction spirit of General Secretary Jinping's work on ecological civilization construction and ecological environmental protection. We will comprehensively consider the practical difficulties of some regions in conjunction with relevant departments and follow the principle of "who benefits and who is responsible" to solve the nature protection problem District mining rights exit.
Zhao Yingmin, Deputy Minister of Ecology and Environment:
Let me briefly respond to a few questions concerning the Ministry of Ecology and Environment. One is about scientific monitoring and providing fair and just assessment results for compensation, such as standardizing the assessment interface, monitoring indicators, calculation methods, etc. for river basin compensation. At present, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment is responsible for organizing water quality monitoring of nationally-controlled river basins across the country, and provides water quality monitoring guarantees for water environmental quality management and ecological compensation for upstream and downstream river basins. At present, most of the water quality requirements for upstream and downstream ecological compensation in inter-provincial river basins are basically determined in accordance with national water quality cross-section assessment requirements. We have water quality assessment requirements for the provincial boundaries of each province. When the ecological compensation water quality standard is determined, it is usually the downstream that the country hopes to set the standard higher, and the upstream hopes that the standard is lower, and coordination is not easy. At present, we are integrating the cross-section of the state-controlled section and the section of the water function zone in combination with the preparation of the “Fourteenth Five-Year Plan” and the adjustment of the function of this institutional reform. Next, we need to further improve the accuracy and precision of the section, especially in terms of The national control section, the provincial control section, the index requirements and the "Fourteenth Five-Year Plan" project arrangements, pollution control and other aspects should be well coordinated, so that all aspects of the power and the water environment improvement tasks are organically integrated.
On carbon emissions trading. The next step is to accelerate the formation of a unified carbon emission trading market across the country. According to requirements, China's carbon trading market will start before the end of next year. Once this market is launched, it is currently the world's largest single market for carbon emissions trading, which is also an important measure for China to deal with climate change. Its role is to use market-based methods to make enterprises with low resource and energy efficiency in the same industry pay more, while allowing high-efficiency companies to get economic returns.
Regarding the issue of emissions trading, first, the central government requires that by the end of 2020, pollution permits covering all fixed sources of pollution can be issued to determine the company's initial emission rights. Secondly, regarding the scientifically approved initial emission right, currently the emission permits are converted in accordance with statutory requirements, that is, emission concentration standards. The next step is to further deepen and improve the emission permit system, such as further scientifically verify the same The issue of the emission rights of different enterprises in the industry has linked the emission rights of enterprises within the statutory standards and the requirements for environmental quality improvement in their regions, making the determination of the initial emission rights more scientific and reasonable. Third, it is necessary to speed up the establishment of a monitoring and supervision system for the total emissions of enterprises. Our current supervision of enterprises is basically concentration supervision. Exceeding standards refer to concentration standards. However, if it is an emissions trading, it must scientifically monitor, supervise, and supervise its emissions. If it is to trade, it must be its actual emissions. How much. At present, some major pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and chemical oxygen demand are OK, but many pollutants, such as VOC, how much it emits, it is difficult to define scientifically. After these few things are done, emissions trading, especially in the secondary market, can be started well, so that through marketization, the whole society can reduce pollutants at a lower cost.