Xie Zhengguang, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, member of the Beijing Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China, rotating chairman of the China Urban Rail Transit Association, party secretary and chairman of the Beijing Metro Operation Co., Ltd.
Standing in front of an old black and white photo at the exhibition celebrating the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, Xie Zhengguang was filled with emotion.
"This year is the 70th anniversary of the founding of New China, and it is also the 50th anniversary of the opening and opening of the first line of the Beijing Metro." Xie Zhengguang said that the opening of Line 1 happened on October 1, 1969. The opening of this line has enabled the Chinese subway to make a leap from scratch, and has also conducted many difficult explorations.
In fact, the planning of Beijing Metro Line 1 was considered from 1953, but construction was not started until 1965. Why did it take more than ten years from idea to practice?
In 1956, China proposed the construction of a subway project with the support of Soviet experts. Immediately after three difficult times, coupled with the deterioration of Sino-Soviet relations, Soviet experts withdrew from China, and the first phase of the subway project was put on hold. "It was only in 1965 that construction of the first phase of the project really started. At that time, everything started from scratch." Xie Zhengguang said.
For Xie Zhengguang, who was born in the 1960s and later studied tunnel and subway majors, this subway line, almost his age, was full of twists and turns.
"From the perspective of design and construction, what was the burial depth of Line 1 at that time? Was it deep or shallow? From the present point of view, it doesn't seem to be difficult, but in that year, as the first subway line in New China, A lot of demonstrative work. "Xie Zhengguang said.
Beijing Metro Line 1 is a completely self-designed, constructed and operated line. Although it was integrated with the advanced technology and equipment of New China at that time, China did not have a subway system before. Most of its vehicles and various professional system equipment were newly developed non-standard non-standard Shaped disposable prototypes. "Beijing Metro Line 1 was built under the cordial care and direct leadership of the central government." Xie Zhengguang said that in 1965, Chairman Mao Zedong had given instructions to Metro Line 1, stating that "meticulous design and careful construction, during the construction process , There will be many mistakes and failures, and we must pay attention to correction at any time. "
From scratch, when the subway was opened, large and small faults occurred in operation. Everyone learns in practice and discusses how to solve problems when encountered. "So our later rules and regulations were exchanged for lessons learned." Xie Zhengguang said that a serious vehicle fire accident occurred shortly after the opening of Line 1, and the subway was suspended for rectification. It is against this background that, following the instructions of Premier Zhou, the "labor reform" was implemented, and on April 15, 1970, the Beijing Metro Operation Management Office of the Railway Corps was established, which is also the predecessor of the Beijing Metro Corporation.
In the 1980s, Xie Zhengguang studied in the Department of Civil Engineering of Southwest Jiaotong University in the Department of Tunnels and Underground Railway. During his postgraduate study at Lanzhou Railway College, he contacted the Beijing Metro Science and Technology Institute because of the subject of subway train vibration response research. At that time, Beijing Metro urgently needed professional and technical personnel. In 1988, Xie Zhengguang officially joined the Beijing Metro team after graduating from graduate school.
Xie Zhengguang remembered that there were only two lines operating in Beijing at that time. At that time, the key to developing the subway industry was technology and funding. "It has been more than a decade since the reform and opening up. We have learned about some advanced technologies abroad, and we have also seen the gap between China and foreign advanced technology levels." Xie Zhengguang said that there were two ideas at the time, one was to import the entire vehicle from abroad The other is to introduce key foreign core technologies as far as possible, and then carry out system integrated manufacturing in China. Beijing Metro has always adopted the latter idea. Later, China put forward the requirement that the localization rate be no less than 70%, which greatly promoted the development of subway technology.
"Actually, until the 1990s, the subway industry was still in a difficult exploration phase. After I worked, I felt that there were many problems to be solved and many things to be done." Xie Zhengguang said.
In 1999, with the completion of the section from Fuxingmen to Bawangfen, the Beijing Metro also had only two lines, Line 1 and Line 2, with a total length of 54 kilometers. In 2008, the Beijing Olympics were held, and the city of Beijing became the focus of worldwide attention. From 2000 to 2008, it also ushered in the first peak period of Beijing subway construction.
By the 2008 Olympic Games, Beijing Metro's operating mileage will reach 200 kilometers. This means that only 54 kilometers were completed in the first 30 years. In the six or seven years before the Olympic Games, more than 140 kilometers were completed, and the development rate is very fast. Behind this is the boost of China's economic and social development after the reform and opening up, the urgent need for mass travel, and the portrayal of scientific research and accumulation of research by subway researchers.
In the 1990s, vehicle equipment was relatively backward and there were many potential safety hazards. In 2001, Xie Zhengguang served as the general manager of the Beijing Metro Company, feeling deeply responsible: "We always feel sitting on the crater, and often have accidents. After the successful bid for the Olympic Games, I was thinking that the Beijing Olympics proposed to the Beijing Metro What kind of requirements? "
"We put forward the strategic concept of the" new subway "and hope that the Beijing subway will develop well and quickly." Xie Zhengguang said that, in addition to the construction of new lines, in addition to the construction of new lines, large-scale upgrades of the old lines have been carried out to make the old lines Get a new look. In terms of operation management, through process reengineering, innovative operating models were created. In terms of passenger flow organization, we have created a civilized industry and established a new culture of civilization. We have established a series of norms such as waiting in line, getting on and off, and taking the elevator by civilization.
Around 2002, Xie Zhengguang had an idea. He proposed in an internal meeting that he hopes that the Beijing subway will reach a world-class level. "But everyone thinks that it is impossible. It is impossible to look at the vehicle equipment." At that time, he had to change this goal to align with the world-class level. However, he had the conviction in his heart that the goal of achieving the world-class level would one day be achieved.
Time proved his idea. The Olympic examination showed the world a new look of the "new subway". The operating index of that year was ranked second in the annual benchmarking of the International Metro Association (CoMET).
Today, there are 23 Beijing subway lines with a total mileage of 699 kilometers and a daily maximum passenger volume of nearly 14 million. It is always in the forefront of the annual benchmarking of the International Metro Association. From the perspective of the national subway industry, key core technologies such as train traction control systems and signal systems have all been autonomous and reached world-class levels. There are already 39 cities in the country building subways, with a total mileage of nearly 6,000 kilometers, making it the country with the longest subway operating mileage in the world. In terms of benchmarking for the world's subway industry, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou have entered the top ten in the international subway industry CoMETKPI benchmarking. "No matter in terms of riding environment or comfort, China's subway is already at the advanced level in the world." Xie Zhengguang said that in recent years, he went to some developed countries to inspect, and he also heard many colleagues praise the Chinese subway.
According to the "Beijing Urban Rail Transit Construction Plan 2019", currently the line is under construction with a mileage of 283 kilometers and 147 stations. After completion, Beijing will form a huge rail transit network with an operating mileage of 981 kilometers and 552 stations.
The Beijing subway facilitates everyone's transportation, and also carries people's emotions and memories. For decades, Xie Zhengguang, as an "old subway", has created a safer, more comfortable and convenient subway travel environment for the citizens, and it is the heavy responsibility of subway people.
"In recent years, we have been working to improve transportation capacity. The minimum travel interval of the central urban backbone line has been achieved for 2 minutes. The number of stations with normalized traffic restrictions is gradually decreasing. With the construction of the new line, the line network is encrypted, and the congestion is also improving. "Xie Zhengguang said that in the future, the Beijing Metro will better serve the citizens by making full use of the existing road network and improving transportation efficiency to reduce the traffic restrictions outside the station, stranded inside the station, and congestion during peak travel times.